Research Supporting The Tough Kid Strategies
References for Strategies Presented in The Tough Kid Series

Mystery Motivators

Alric, J. M., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., Chafouleas, S. M., & Theodore, L. A. (2007). A comparison of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies with randomized reinforcers to increase reading fluency. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 22(1), 81-93.

Bennett, M. M. (2007). An interdependent group contingency with mystery motivators to increase spelling performance. (Doctoral dissertation, Hofstra University, 2007). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(10), 6040B.

De Martini-Scully, D., Bray, M. A., & Kehle, T. J. (2000). A packaged intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors in general education students. Psychology in the Schools, 37(2), 149-156.

Dennee, J. A. (2001). Teaching disrespectful students. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie.

Hoag, J. (2006). Effects of mystery motivators vs. expected reinforcers on disruptive behavior in preschoolers. (Doctoral dissertation, Hofstra University, 2007). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(10), 6041B.

Kagan, D. H. (2004). Positive reinforcement as an intervention for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizoid personality disorder. Unpublished master's thesis, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ.

Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., Theodore, L. A., Jenson, W. R., & Clark, E. (2000). A multi- component intervention designed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior [Special Issue]. Psychology in the Schools, 37(5), 475-481.

Kehle, T. J., Madaus, M. R., & Baratta, V. S. (1998). Augmented self-modeling as a treatment for children with selective mutism. Journal of School Psychology, 36(3), 247-260.

Lasecki, K. L. (2008). Normalizing blood glucose levels in children with type I diabetes: Mystery motivators used within the context of behavioral consultation models. School Psychology Quartery, 23, 389-406.

LeBlanc, D. M. (1999). Mystery motivator versus reward menu: An investigation of the effects of home-based reinforcement delivery systems used with home-school notes on disruptive/disengaged classroom behavior. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(8), 4449B.

Lynch, A. (2007). Comparison of group contingencies with mystery motivators and randomized criteria: A homework intervention. (Doctoral dissertation, Hofstra University, 2007). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(10), 6042B.

Madaus, M. R., Kehle, T. J., Madaus, J., & Bray, M. A. (2003). Mystery motivator as an intervention to promote homework completion and accuracy. School Psychology International, 24(4), 369-377.

Miller, D. N., McDougal, J. L., Volpe, R. J., Blom-Hoffman, J., Chafouleas, S. M., & Riley-Tillman, T. (2006). Promoting behavioral competence: An introduction to the practitioner's edition. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 1-5.

Mitchem, K. J., & Wells, D. L. (2002). A classwide peer-assisted self-management program: Adaptations, implications, and a step-by-step guide for rural educators. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 21(2), 3-15.

Moore, L. A., Waguespack, A. M., Wickstrom, K. F., & Witt, J. C. (1994). Mystery motivator: An effective and time efficient intervention. School Psychology Review, 23(1), 106-118.

Mottram, L. M. (2004). An intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with brain injury. (Doctoral dissertation, St. John's University, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(7), 3535B.

Mottram, L., & Berger-Gross, P. (2004). An intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with brain injury. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 7(2).

Mottram, L. M., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., Broudy, M., Jenson, W. R. (2002). A classroom-based intervention to reduce disruptive behaviors. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 19(1), 65-74.

Murphy, K. A. (2004). Reducing disruptive behaviors in preschoolers: Using interdependent group contingency with mystery motivators. (Doctoral dissertation, Hofstra University, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(5), 2609B.

Murphy, K., Theodore, L., Aloiso, D., Alric-Edwards, J., & Hughes, T. (2007). Interdependent group contingency and mystery motivators to reduce preschool disruptive behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 56-63.

Musser, E. H., Bray, M. A., & Kehle, T. J. (2001). Reducing disruptive behaviors in students with serious emotional disturbance. School Psychology Review, 30(2), 294-304.

Robinson, K., & Sheridan, S. (2000). Using the mystery motivator to improve child bedtime compliance. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 22(1), 29-49.

Sentelle, J. A. (2004). A multicomponent behavioral intervention for a diverse classroom. (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(10), 3594A.

Siegle, D., & McCoach, B. (2005). Turning gifts into talents: Strategies to increase student motivation and achievement. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/Conferences/underachievement.pdf

Theodore, L. A., Bray, M. A., Kehle, T. J., & DioGuardi, R. J. (2003). Contemporary review of group-oriented contingencies for disruptive behavior. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 20(1), 79-101.

Weeks, D. (n.d.) Token economy systems used for classroom management for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Unpublished manuscript, Western Michigan University. Retrieved March 4, 2010, from http://homepages.wmich.edu/~d2weeks/Token_Economy.htm.

Wille, J. (2002). Reducing disruptive classroom behavior with multicomponent intervention: A literature review. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout.

Spinners

Jenson, W. R., Neville, M., & Sloane, H. N. (1982). Spinners and chartmoves: A contingency management system for school and home. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 4(1), 81-85.

Jesse, V., Jenson, W. R., & Sloane, H. N. (1990). Compliance and generalization training for elementary students: A compliance matrix and spinner system. San Francisco: National Association of School Psychologists.

Peine, H. A., Darvish, R., & Blakelock, H. (1998). Non-aversive reduction of cigarette smoking in two adult men in a residential setting. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 29(1), 55-65.

Principal's 200 Club

Mathie, H. (2009a). The effects of positive behavior support within a district model of implementation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah.

Mathie, H. (2009b). The Principal's 200 Club: Schoolwide reinforcement at its best. Utah Special Educator, 32, 32-33.

Pettersson, H. (2009). Systematic behavior change in Utah schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah.

Pettersson, H., Christiansen, E., Jenson, W.R. & Olympia, D.E. (2004). The principal's 200 club: A school-wide intervention. Paper presented at National Association of School Psychologists Convention, Dallas, TX.

Pettersson, H., Mathie, H., & Jenson, W. R. (2006). Utah's behavior initiative and the school psychologist's role. Paper presented at National Association of School Psychologists Convention, New York.

Precision Commands

Bourn, D. F. (1993). Over-chastisement, child non-compliance and parenting skills: A behavioural intervention by a family centre social worker. British Journal of Social Work, 23(5), 481-499.

Faciane, S. A. (2005). An investigation into the effects of eye contact on child compliance. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 2005). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(10), 5382B.

Figueira, J. A. (2007). The effects of video self-modeling on the compliance rates of high school students with developmental disabilities. Unpublished master's thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Henderson, D. J. (1985). Effects of parental command type, child concurrent behaviors, and parental consequences on child compliance. (Doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(5), 1686B.

Hudson, A., & Blane, M. (1985). The importance of non verbal behavior in giving instructions to children. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 7(2), 1-10.

Kapalka, G. M. (2004). Longer eye contact improves ADHD children's compliance with parent's commands. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8(1), 17-23.

MacKay, S., McLaughlin, T. F., Weber, K., & Derby, M. L. (2001). The use of precision requests to decrease noncompliance in the home and neighborhood: A case study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23, 41-50.

Reed, K., F. (1985). Child compliance as a function of imperative versus interrogative commands. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 45(10), 3343B.

Yeager, C. & McLaughlin, T. F. (1995). The use of a timeout ribbon and precision requests to improve child compliance in the classroom: A case study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 17, 1-9.

"Sure I Will"

Martin-Lemaster, J. (1990). Increasing classroom compliance of noncompliant elementary-age students: The "Sure I Will" program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

Michielsen, H. M. (1990). Using direct instruction to teach compliance training in seriously noncompliant students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Utah State University, Logan.

Neville, M. H., & Jenson, W. R. (1984). Precision commands and the 'Sure I Will' program: A quick and efficient compliance training sequence. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 6(3), 61-65.

The Tough Kid Book and Tough Kid—Related Concepts

Benoit, D. A., Edwards, R. P., Olmi, D. J., Wilczynski, S. M., Mandal, R. L. (2001). Positive antecedent and consequent components in child compliance training. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23(2), 19-32.

Crum, C. F. (2004). Using a cognitive-behavioral modification strategy to increase on-task behavior of a student with a behavior disorder. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39(5), 305-309.

Doyle, P., Jenson, W. R., Clark, E., & Gates, G. (1999). Free time and dots as negative reinforcement to improve academic completion and accuracy for mildly disabled students. Proven Practice: Prevention, Remediation, Solutions for Schools, 2, 10-15.

DuPaul, G. J., & Weyandt, L. L. (2006). School-based intervention for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Effects on academic, social, and behavioural functioning. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 53(2), 161-176.

Gaudette, S., Olympia, D., & Jenson, W. R. (2003). Improving math fact acquisition using peer-mediated structured feedback strategies. Proven Practice, 5, 12-22.

Houlihan, D. Sloane, H. N., Jenson, W. R., & Levine, H. D. (1991). Treating preschool children with multiple behavior problems: Testing for the response covariation phenomenon. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 6, 321-340.

Jenson, W. R. (1993). The "Yes" and "No" Bag: A practical program for classroom consequences. Best Times Newsletter. Tempe: Arizona State University.

Jenson, W. R., Christopolus, K., Zimmerman, M., Nicholas, P., Reavis, K., & Rhode, G. (1991). A much-needed link with regular education: The generalization of behaviorally disordered students. In J. Marr & G. Tindal (Eds.). Monograph for the Oregon teacher's conference. Eugene: University of Oregon.

Jenson, W. R., Reavis, K., & Andrews, D. (1996). Promoting competent behavior of tough kids: Designing classroom rules. NASP Communiqué, Summer, 2-4.

Jenson, W. R., Sheridan, S. M., Olympia, D., & Andrews, D. (1994). Homework and students with learning disabilities and behavior disorders: A practical parent based approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 27, 538-549.

Kuhn, L., Jenson, W.R. & Olympia, D. (March 2006). Validation of a parent training program for preschool children with ADHD. Paper presented at the National Association of School Psychologists, Anaheim, CA.

Mandal, R. L., Olmi, D. J., Edwards, R. P., Tingstrom, D. H., & Benoit, D. A. (2000). Effective instruction delivery and time-in: Positive procedures for achieving child compliance. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 22(4), 1-12.

Neville, M. H. & Jenson, W. R. (1986). The inexpensive lock: key to the television reinforcer. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 7, 59-61.

Olmi, D. J., Sevier, R. C., & Nastasi, D. F. (1997). Time-in/time-out as a response to noncompliance and inappropriate behavior with children with developmental disabilities: Two case studies. Psychology in the Schools, 34(1), 31-39.

Olympia, D., Sheridan, S., & Jenson, W. R. (1994a). Homework: A natural means of home-school collaboration. School Psychology Quarterly, 9, 60-80.

Olympia, D., Sheridan, S., & Jenson, W. R. (1994b). Using student-managed interventions to increase homework completion and accuracy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 85-99.

Weiner, R. K., Sheridan, S., & Jenson, W. R. (1998). The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation and a structured homework program on math completion and accuracy in Junior High students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 281-309

The Tough Kid Bully Blockers

Clarke-Smith, S., Olympia, D.E., Bowen, J. Jenson, W.R., Springer, B. & Belnap, B. (2007) Validation of a schoolwide bullying prevention program: The daybreak experience. Paper presented at the National Association of School Psychologists, New York.

Olympia, D., Bowen, J., Springer, B., Belnap, B., & Jenson, W. R. (2007). Applying a schoolwide bullying program: A case study. National Association of School Psychologists, New York.

Tough Kid Interventions with Conjoint Consultation (A randomized controlled study of 82 classrooms, 207 students, and their families)

Sheridan, S., Glover, T. A., Bovaird, J. A., Garbacz,S. A., Witte, A., & Kwon, K. (2010, submitted for review). Conjoint behavioral consultation: Outcomes for students and the role of the parent teacher relationship for addressing behavioral concerns. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families and Schools.